中国进出口动物源性食品安全管理体系介绍 -澳门电玩城

中国进出口动物源性食品安全管理体系介绍
发布时间:2020-12-13 17:26:58 来源:长沙楚汉企业管理咨询有限公司 浏览:715

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(introduction of official safety control on chinese products of animal origin for export & import)

一、进出口食品安全法律、法规和标准体系

laws, regulations and standards on import and export food safety

(一)法律laws

1、《中华人民共和国进出口商品检验法》

law of the people’s republic of china on import and export commodity inspection

2、《中华人民共和国进出境动植物检疫法》

law of the people's republic of china on the entry and exit animal and plant quarantine

3、《中华人民共和国动物防疫法》

law of the people's republic of china on animal disease prevention

4、《中华人民共和国食品卫生法》

food hygiene law of the people's republic of china

5、《中华人民共和国产品质量法》

product quality law of the people's republic of china

(二)法规 regulations

1、《中华人民共和国进出境动植物检疫法实施条例》

regulations for the implementation of the law of the people's republic of china on the entry and exit animal and plant quarantine

2、《中华人民共和国进出口商品检验法实施条例》

regulations for the implementation of the law of the people's republic of china on import and export commodity inspection

3、《中华人民共和国兽药管理条例》

administrative regulations of the people's republic of china on veterinary medicine

4、《中华人民共和国饲料管理条例》

administrative regulations of the people's republic of china on feeding fodder

5、《中华人民共和国农药管理条例》

administrative regulations of the people's republic of china on pesticides

6、《中华人民共和国种畜禽管理条例》

administrative regulations of the people's republic of china on breeding stock and poultry

(三)部门规章regulations of ministry

1、动物卫生控制animal disease control

(1)《供港澳活禽检验检疫管理办法》(国家质检总局第26号局令)

(2)《动物疫情报告管理办法》(1999年10月20日农业部发布)

(3)《国家动物疫情测报体系管理规范(试行)》

(4)《国家高致病性禽流感防治应急预案》

(5)《关于印发《高致病性禽流感防治技术规范》等7个重大动物疫病防治技术规范的通知》

(1) control measures for report on animal epidemic situation (issued by ministry of agriculture on oct 20th, 1999)

 (2) control measures for inspection and quarantine of live birds supplied to hong kong and macao (order of aqsiq no.26)

(3) specifications on state animal epidemic situation of report and forecast

(4) state emergency provision on prevention and cure of hpai

(5) notification regarding of issuing 7 important epizootic control technical protocols including highly pathogenic avian influenza control technical protocol ( moa [2002] no. 74)

2、进出口肉类、水产品及蜂蜜生产加工卫生安全控制

hygiene and safety control on processing of meat, aquatic product and honey for export and import

(1)《进出境肉类产品检验检疫管理办法》(国家质检总局2002年第26号令)

(2)《出口肉禽饲养用药管理办法》

(3)《出口禽肉及其制品检验检疫要求》

(4)《进出境水产品检验检疫管理办法》(国家质检总局2002年31号令)

(5)《出口蜂蜜检验检疫管理办法》(国家质检总局第20号局令)

(6)关于印发《出口鳗鱼产品检验检疫和监管要求(试行)》的通知

(1) control measures for inspection and quarantine of meat for entry-exit (aqsiq announcement no. 26, 2002)

(2) regulation on drug usage control for export chicken

(3) inspection and quarantine requirements for export chicken and chicken products

(4) inspection and quarantine administrative measures for entry and exit aquatic products (aqsiq announcement no. 31, 2002)

(5) inspection and quarantine administrative measures on honey and honey products for export (ciq announcement no. 20)

3、出口食品企业注册管理

administration on registration of food establishments for export

(1)《出口食品卫生注册登记管理规定》(国家质检总局2002年第20号令)

(2)《出口食品生产企业危害分析与关键控制点(haccp)管理体系认证管理规定》(2002年认监委第3号公告)

(3)《出口食品生产企业申请国外卫生注册管理办法》(认监委2002第15号公告)

(4)《出口鳗鱼养殖场登记管理办法》

(1) administrative regulation of sanitary registration for food processing establishment for export (aqsiq announcement no. 20)

(2) regulation on administration of haccp management system certification (cnca announcement no.3 2002)

(3) regulation for administration of domestic manufacturers regarding food export registration in foreign countries (cnca announcement no.15,2002)

(4) administrative measures of registration on farm of eels for export

4、残留监控

residue monitoring

(1)《兽药管理条例实施细则》

(2)《农药管理条例实施办法》(农业部令20号)

(3)《水产品药物残留专项整治计划》

(4)《残留分析质量控制指南》

(5)《关于发布《动物性食品中兽药最高残留限量》的通知》

(1) administrative regulations on detailed rules for implementation of veterinary drugs

(2) administrative regulations for implementation of pesticide (moa order no.20)

(2) special renovation plan on drug residues of aquatic products

(3) quality control guideline for analysis of residues

(4) notice on mrls of veterinary drugs in the foods of animal

5、病原微生物控制

pathogen control

(1)《关于执行<鲜、冻禽产品>国家标准的通知》

(2)《关于进一步加强对境肉鸡产品检验检疫管理的通知》

(3)《关于进一步加强禽流感防疫检疫工作的紧急通知》

(4)《关于进一步加强进境肉类检验检疫工作的通知》

(5)《进出境肉类产品检验检疫管理办法》

(1) circular letter on the implementation of national standards of fresh, frozen poultry products

(2) circular letter on further strengthening quality controls of exported chicken products

(3) emergency circular on further strengthening ai prevention and identification

(4) circular letter on further strengthening quality controls of the import of meat products

(5) management of quality inspection, supervision and quarantine of the import and export of meat products

6、出口食品加工储运卫生控制

sanitary control in processing and storage of foods for export

1)《出口食品生产企业卫生注册登记管理规定》

2)《肉类屠宰加工企业卫生注册规范》等规范

(4)《食品生产加工企业质量安全监督管理办法》第52号局令

(1) administrative regulation of sanitary registration for food processing establishment for export

 (2) sanitation criteria for slaughtering and processing enterprises of meat products, and ect.

(3) administrative measure of supervision on quality and safety of food processing enterprises

(四)技术标准

1、国际标准( international standards)

(1)《动物卫生法典(oie)》

(2)《哺乳动物、禽、蜜蜂a和b类疾病诊断试验和疫苗标准手册》

(3)《国际水生动物法典(oie)》

(4)《国际水生动物疾病诊断手册》

(5)《国际植物保护组织(ippc)有关标准》

(6)《食品法典委员会(cac)有关标准》

(1) terrestrial animal health code

(2) manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals

(3) aquatic animal health code

(4) manual of diagnostic tests for aquatic animals

(5) international standards for phytosanitary measures

(6) relative standards of codex alimentarius commission

2、国内标准(部分gbsn标准)

domestic standards (some gb and sn)

(1)gb 2707-1994  猪肉卫生标准   

(2)gb 2710-1996  鲜(冻)禽肉卫生标准 

(3)sn/t 0418—95 出口冻家兔肉检验规程

(4)sn/t 0419—95 出口冻肉用鸡检验规程

(5)sn/t 0384—95 出口冻对虾检验

 (1) gb 2707-1994 hygiene standard for pork

(2) gb 2710-1996 hygienic standard for fresh (frozen) poultry

(3) sn/t 0418—95 rule for inspection of frozen rabbit meat for export

(4) sn/t 0419—95 rule for inspection of frozen chicken for export

(5) sn/t 0384—95 rule of the inspection of frozen prawn for export

二、组织管理体系(management  system)

(一)组织机构organization

根据我国有关法律法规和十届全国人大一次会议批准通过的新一届政府机构,我国涉及动物健康与保护、植物保护以及食品安全的官方机构主要有三个,即国家质量监督检验检疫总局、农业部和卫生部。

according to relevant chinese laws and regulations, currently there are three governmental bodies involved in animal health, animal and plant protection and food safety—general administration of quality supervision, inspection and quarantine of the people’s republic of china (aqsiq) , ministry of agriculture (moa) and ministry of health

1、国家质量监督检验检疫总局(国家质检总局):

general administration of quality supervision, inspection and quarantine of the people’s republic of china (aqsiq)

2001年4月由原国家出入境检验检疫局与原国家质量技术监督局合并组建而成,是国务院直属的正部级部门。国家质检总局主管全国质量、计量、出入境商品检验、出入境卫生检疫、出入境动植物检疫和认证认可、标准化等工作。质检总局内设办公厅等15个机构,同时管理国家认证认可监督管理委员会和国家标准化管理委员会。两个委员会分别负责综合、协调全国的认证认可工作和统一管理、监督和综合协调全国的标准化工作。

aqsiq is a ministerial body directly under the state council, merged by the former state administration for entry-exit inspection and quarantine of the people’s republic of china and state administration for quality, technology supervision of the people’s republic of china in april 2001. the scope of responsibility of aqsiq mainly covers national quality supervision, equipment calibration, entry-exit commodity inspection, entry-exit sanitary quarantine, entry-exit quarantine of animals and plants, certification and accreditation, standardization, etc. there are 15 departments under aqsiq, excluding the two institutions, certification and accreditation administration of the people’s republic of china and standardization administration committee of the people’s republic of china, respectively responsible for the integration, coordination and supervision of certification and accreditation, and standardization.

国家质检总局在全国各省、自治区、直辖市和主要口岸设立了35个直属检验检疫局,在各省市设立质量技术监督局,国家质检总局负责管理该35个直属检验检疫局的业务工作,并对其人、财、物统一实施垂直管理。各直属检验检疫局在海陆空口岸和货物集散地设立分支机构,全国共有272个检验检疫分支局和278个办事处,共设有452个实验室,约有32000人,其中负责进出境动物及动物产品的检验、检疫、出证和出口食品加工企业的监督管理等工作的约有6000人。现有专职官方兽医2700名,拥有动物产品和食品的检验检疫设备10000台套。

currently aqsiq has set up 35 ciq bureaus and several quality and technology supervision bureaus , whose operations, personnel and properties are in its vertical integration. under the 35 bureaus, there are 282 branches and 281 offices, mainly located in different ports and goods distributing centers across the country. aqsiq has 452 laboratories, 10,000 sets of inspection and quarantine equipment, and a staff population of around 35,000, among whom 2,700 are full-time official veterinarians and about 6,000 are responsible for entry-exit quarantine and quality inspection of animals and animal products, issuing health certificates and supervision and control of food processing plants producing products for export.

2、中华人民共和国国家认证认可监督管理局,是国务院组建并授权的履行行政管理职能,统一管理,监督和综合协调全国认证认可工作的主管机构。其主要职能之一是负责进出口食品和化妆品生产、加工单位的卫生注册登记的评审和注册等工作,办理注册通报和向国外推荐事宜。

certification and accreditation administration of the people’s republic of china (cnca) is established by the state council, and is authorized by the state council to exercise administrative responsibilities by undertaking unified management, supervision and overall coordination of certification and accreditation activities across the country.

3、农业部 ministry of agriculture (moa)

农业部畜牧兽医局负责全国动物健康和兽医公共卫生,负责全国动物疫病的防治、诊断、疫情控制、疫情通报、兽药管理、残留控制、对畜禽及其产品实施检疫等工作。对设在全国各地的31个省级畜牧兽医局(厅)的工作进行行业指导等。

设在全国各地的省级、地级与县级畜牧兽医局负责本地区动物疫病的防治、诊断、疫情控制、疫情通报、兽药管理、实施残留控制、对供应当地市场的畜禽与畜禽产品实施检疫等工作。

bureau of animal production and health is a department under the ministry of agriculture responsible for animal health and veterinary public health in china. its scope of responsibility includes animal disease prevention and diagnosis, epidemic control and notification, veterinary drug management, residue control, quarantine of livestock and poultry and their products, etc. it also exerts control and guidance on the work of animal production and health bureaus at provincial levels, which are responsible for animal disease prevention and diagnosis, epidemic control and notification, veterinary drug management, residue control, quarantine of livestock and poultry and their products at local levels.

农业部在全国还设有四所国家级兽医研究机构,如中国农业科学院哈尔滨兽医研究所、中国农业科学院上海寄生虫病研究所、中国农业科学院兰州兽医研究所、农业部动物检疫所。各省也都设有相应的畜牧兽医研究机构。分别开展对兽医疫病的病原控制等方面的研究。

there are four national veterinary research institutes across the country, namely, institute of animal quarantine of moa, harbin veterinary research institute, shanghai verminosis research institute, lanzhou veterinary institute. the latter three belong to china academy of agricultural sciences. there are also many provincial veterinary research institutes that constitute a network conducting studies on pathogenic control of animal diseases, etc.

3、卫生部 ministry of health

由国务院主管,下设卫生监督中心、县及以上各级卫生行政部门和中国cdc(营安所)。其中卫生监督中心是行政执行机构,下设同级卫生监督所(局)。中国cdc(营安所)是澳门电玩城的技术支持部门,下设同级cdc。口岸进口食品监督检验机构,全国共有10万左右的卫生监督员,20余万的食品卫生检验人员。

               

the ministry of health, under which there are health supervision centers, health administrative departments at county level and above and china cdc, is accountable for the state council. health supervision centers are administrative, executive bodies, while china cdc is responsible for technical support. there are about 100,000 food supervisors and over 200,000 food inspectors within the entry border food supervision services under the ministry of health.

(二)管理内容与范围

2.2 object and scope of import and export food safety control

1、食品安全管理的内容包括:

2.2.1 object—what needs to be controlled

(1)有害生物:病原微生物,虫(体内、外寄生虫,昆虫),害(有害物质、杂草等);

harmful existences: pathogenic microbes, pests (celozoic and ectozoic parasites, insects), weeds and other harmful substances.

(2)残留(农药与兽药残留,重金属,生物与化学毒素,有毒物质,超标的微量元素);

residues: pesticides and veterinary drug residues, heavy metal, chemical toxins, toxic substances, trace elements, etc.

(3)新源性食品(转基因食品,促生长类添加物,保健食品,特殊营养物质等)。

novel foods: gmos, growth promoters, health-care products, special nutrients, etc.

  2食品安全管理的范围(scope of food safety control

食品安全管理的范围包括生产、加工、仓储、运输、进出口销售等环节和内容

scope—the whole supply chain including production, processing, storage, transportation, and distribution

(1)生产 production

(2)加工 processing

(3)仓储 storage

(4)运输 transportation

5)销售或进出口 distribution or import & export

.兽医卫生防疫体系 (measures on bio-security of veterinary)

(一)农业部对动物病的卫生控制

1. control of animal diseases by moa

农业部门通过对国内流通领域的动物疫病的预防、动物和动物产品的检疫、疫病的控制和扑灭、动物防疫监督以及运输控制等环节实现对动物疾病的卫生控制。对外来动物疫病与应报告的动物疫病,严格按照oie的规定要求,进行控制。

moa and its related departments at local levels exert control over domestic animal diseases through measures on disease prevention, quarantine, control and eradication, supervision of animal disease prevention and transportation administration. all disease no matter it’s foreign or local, it should be reported and controlled in strict accordance with oie regulations and requirements.

(二)检验检疫部门对出口供宰动物的卫生控制

sanitary control on animals for slaughtering by supervision and quarantine authorities

1、  对饲养场的疫病控制与检疫监管

disease control and quarantine supervision on farms

国家质检总局规定:所有出口禽肉加工企业必须建立“五统一(即统一屠宰,统一供雏,统一供料,统一供药,统一防疫)”的管理体系,所屠宰的商品肉鸡必须来自经检验检疫机构备案的商品鸡场。

aqsiq requires that all processing plants producing poultry meat for export should establish ‘five-unification’ management system, i.e., unification of chick supply, unification of feed supply, unification of drug supply, unification of vaccination, and unification of slaughtering; that all chicken for slaughtering must be from farms that have been put on file by supervision and quarantine authorities.

出口禽肉加工企业的兽医人员与兽医实验室接受当地兽医防疫机构与检验检疫机构的监督检查与管理。当地兽医防疫机构与检验检疫机构对出口禽肉企业肉禽的饲养、防疫、用药、免疫与疫病控制以及屠宰进行检疫检验与监督管理。

plant veterinarians and laboratories are subject to the control of local veterinary authorities and ciqs, who also supervise and regulate feeding, disease-prevention, drug-application, immunization and disease control, and slaughtering in plants.

   

2、宰前与宰后检疫

3.2.2 ante- and post-mortem quarantine

国家质检总局2002年10月颁布实施的《进出境肉类检验检疫管理办法》规定:各检验检疫机构要做好屠宰家禽的宰前与宰后兽医检疫监管。

regulation for entry-exit meat inspection and quarantine, issued in october 2002 by aqsiq, prescribes that ciq at all levels should perform ante-mortem and post-mortem quarantine supervision on poultries.

3、动物疫病监测与检测

3.2.3 detection and monitoring of animal diseases

各检验检疫机构对所有供屠宰家禽进行禽流感和新城疫的检疫和监测。对所屠宰的家禽在出栏前3-5天采取喉腔与泄殖腔棉拭子样品, 每个饲养群不少于30个样品,按照荧光rt-pcr方法或参照国际兽医局(oie)规定的方法,检测禽流感和新城疫病毒,并进行毒力鉴定。

competent quarantine and supervision authorities carry out ante-mortem detection and monitoring of ai and nd on poultries. to identify ai or nd virus or its toxicity, swabs should be taken from the or pharynx or cloacae of poultries 3-5 days prior to the date of slaughtering. no less than 30 samples should be taken from each flock. fluorescent rt-pcr method or other methods recommended by oie may be used for the identification.

(三)动物疾病通报机制

3.3 animal disease alert notification system

中国一向对动物疫病实行严格的监测和控制。十届全国人大一次会议批准成立的新一届政府以更加务实的精神将对动物疫病采取更为严格的控制措施,对动物疫病的通报将更迅速、准确。按oie的规定,一旦发现疫情将严格按下列程序上报:

当发生一类或疑似一类可报告疾病时,地方的畜牧兽医部门或检验检疫部门应在12小时内尽快分别报农业部与国家质检总局,并依法在全国迅速采取相应措施。农业部并将有关情况向联合国fao等有关组织报告。

stringent detection and control measures are always put in place in china to prevent against animal disease. the new administration approved by the first session of the tenth national people’s congress are treating the prevention of animal diseases in a more stringent and pragmatic way; as a result, the alert notification system is being operated in a more accurate and efficient way. having regard to the relevant regulations of oie, once an animal disease is detected, the following reporting and notification procedures will be strictly followed:

when list 1 disease, or a suspected disease is detected somewhere in china, the local animal production and health department or ciq shall respectively report to the moa or aqsiq within 12 hours, and at the same time, corresponding measures should be promptly put in place based on relevant laws and regulations. moa will report to fao and other relevant international organization on what’s being detected according to relevant laws and regulations.

ⅳ. 残留监控体系(drug residue monitoring system)

(一)残留监控计划的实施

4.1 implementation of residue monitoring program

1、概述 general situation

1999年3月,中国农业部和原国家检验检疫局参照欧盟96/22与96/23指令的要求,制定了“中华人民共和国动物及动物源食品中残留物质监控计划”。该计划主要包括:有关法律、法规以及有关受监控物质的禁用或允许使用、销售管理规定;监控体系中主管部门和有关部门的组织结构;实验室检测网络;官方抽样细则;计划检测的物质,分析方法,计划抽取的样品数量;对阳性结果的处理措施。

taking into account the requirements of the eu directive 96/22 and 96/23, moa and the former general administration of inspection and quarantine of the people's republic of china (now known as aqsiq) developed ‘chinese residues control program on live animals and foodstuffs of animal origin’ in march 1999, which mainly included: laws and regulations related to residue control; competent authorities concerned and their organization structures; lab inspection network; detailed official sampling procedures; list of substances to be tested and analysis methods to be used; number of samples to be taken; measures against non-compliant cases.

2、残留监控对象

4.1.2 products to be monitored

1999年度残留监控抽样计划将肉鸡、家兔、蜂蜜与鱼列为监控对象;2000年度抽样计划将牛、猪、马、羊、小龙虾和肠衣列为新增监控对象,对水产品己烯雌酚的监控检测由鱼改为鳗鱼。2001年与2002年监控对象没有改变;2003年国家质量监督检验检疫总局考虑到对于蜂王浆和蜂蜜可以分别出口的实际情况,增加了对蜂王浆的监控。

residues monitoring program in 1999 covered broilers, rabbits, honey and fish. cattle, pigs, horse, sheep, crawfish and casings were added to the sampling plan of 2000, and the target of des residue monitoring was specified from fish to eels. the list of animals remained unchanged from 2001 to the following year. in 2003 based on the actual condition that the royal jelly and honey are exported as two different commodities, royal jelly was added by aqsiq to be listed in monitoring program.

3、监控物质种类与名录 

4.1.3 species and catalog of monitoring substances and objective items

(1)1999年出口残留监控物质有13类43种

in 1999, 43 substances of 13 species were included in the rmp

(2)2000年出口残留监控物质有17类62种

in 2000, 62 substances of 17 species were included in the rmp

(3)2001年出口残留监控物质有17类64种

in 2001, 64 substances of 17 species were included in the rmp

(4)2002年残留监控物质有18类87种。

in 2002, 87 substances of 18 species were included in the rmp

(5)2003年进出口残留监控物质有18类90种

in 2003, 90 substances of 18 species were included in the rmp

【1999年至2003年残留监控物质种类对比图】

(类别为监控物质的小类)

4、监控项目与取样数量

4.1.4 residue monitoring items and sample numbers

国家质检总局根据上一年度残留监控结果反馈情况,特别是阳性结果的检出情况,结合各国预警通报的情况,每年适当增加对应监控的检测项目的取样数量;尤其是针对欧盟每次考察报告中对我残留监控计划提出的合理化建议和近年来欧盟通报的氯霉素和硝基呋喃问题,增加了满足欧盟、日本、韩国、瑞士、香港等国家和地区残留监控要求的项目。对残留监控项目在新一年的残留监控计划中进行不断的完善和改进。

based on the residue monitoring results in the previous year, especially on the feedback information of the positive (non-compliance) results, and taking account of world-wide alert notifications, samples of some items to be taken will be duly increased year by year; based on the reasonable suggestions in fvo inspection report and the problems of chloramphenicol and nitrofuran which had been notified by eu in recent years, the monitoring items are being added in order to meet the residue requirement of importing countries and regions such as the eu, japan, korea, switzerland and hk. the list of monitoring items will be updated and the monitoring system, improved in the following year.

(1)2000年在上一年基础上新增加10个监控项目。

in 2000 10 items were added compared with the monitoring program in 1999

(2)2001年在上一年的基础上又增加了18个监控项目

 in 2001 another 18 items were added compared with the monitoring program in 2000

(3)2002年在上一年的基础上增加了59个监控项目

in 2002 59 items were added compared with the monitoring program in 2001

(4)2003在上一年的基础上又新增加了29个监控项目

in 2003 29 items were added compared with the monitoring program in 2002

【1999年至2003年残留监控项目调整增加对比图】

5、取样、送样程序的建立与完善

4.1.5 establishment and improvement of sampling procedure and delivery procedure

为确立官方取样程序和官方样品处理的公正性、合法性和科学性,保证样品的代表性,参照欧盟98/179/ec指令和fao/who农药残留法典委员会所推荐的取样方法,在“1999年中国动物和动物源食品残留物质监控计划”中规定了残留监控样品的“官方取样程序”。

for the purpose of ensuring fairness, lawfulness and scientificness of official sampling and handling of samples, and representativeness of samples taken, ‘official sampling procedure’ was stipulated in ‘chinese residue control program on live animals and foods of animal origin (1999)’ based on the eu directive 98/179/ec and the sampling methods recommended of fao/who pesticide residue code committee.

2000年2月原国家出入境检验检疫局制定并修订完善了《中国动物及动物源食品残留物质监控计划》的工作流程图、ciq残留监控取样流程图、ciq残留监控取样单、ciq残留监控样品标签、ciq残留监控送(收)样单、ciq残留监控检测结果报告单、ciq残留监控结果统计报表,并在实施2001年度残留监控计划中启用。

in february 2000, the following flow charts and recording sheets were improved and put into use in 2001 by the former general administration of inspection and quarantine (now known as aqsiq): the whole ciq residue monitoring work flow chart, ciq residue monitoring sampling flow chart, ciq residue monitoring sampling sheet, ciq residue monitoring sampling tag, ciq residue monitoring delivery sheet, ciq residue monitoring testing results report sheet and the result statistics table.

为保证残留监控样品的安全传递,2001年原国家出入境检验检疫局委托大通国际运输有限公司,将需要航空快递的样品指定由该公司进行运送。现在仍按此规定进行样品传递。

in order to properly deliver the samples, in 2001, ciq started to consign to datong international transportation co. of sample delivery by air express. since then, samples have always been delivered this way.

2001年进一步规范了官方抽样程序。农业部制订了《2001年度兽药残留监控抽样计划技术操作要点》和《残留监控取样实施方案》;原国家出入境检验检疫局针对牛、马、羊、猪、鸡、兔、肠衣、鳗鱼、小龙虾和蜂蜜等不同产品制定了不同的、详细的取样程序。上述技术指导性文件随年度残留监控计划一并下发。官方抽样程序保证了抽样工作的随机性和不确定性。

the official sampling procedure were further standardized in 2001. technical operation key point of the veterinary drug residue monitoring sampling plan in 2001 and operational measures of residue monitoring sampling were stipulated by moa; ciq also set up various detailed sampling procedures for cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, chicken, rabbits, casings, eels, crayfish and honey respectively. all of these technical guidance documents were distributed to local authorities with the annual residue monitoring program together. the sampling could be stochastic and non-scheduled in the implementation of the official sampling procedure.

6、监控地区和抽样检测任务

residue monitored regions and their assigned sampling and testing tasks

国家质检总局每年根据上一年度的残留监控工作情况,结合各直属局提交的残留监控报告中提出的问题及各局上报的新一年度残留监控工作计划,国家质检总局在每年发布的年度残留监控计划对各地区的抽样和检测任务均作适当调整。

based on the implementation of the residue monitoring program in the previous year, the problems mentioned in the implementation reports and residue monitoring plans for the coming year submitted by regional authorities, aqsiq makes reasonable adjustment on regional arrangement of the overall sampling and testing tasks.

目前抽样地区已从1999年的12个地区增加到32个地区。2003年还新增加了氯霉素和硝基呋喃的检测抽样;另外考虑到我国对进口产品检测出的残留阳性结果增多,从2003年开始实施进口产品的残留监测,重点在广东、辽宁、上海、山东、天津和深圳等入境口岸地区进行抽样。

for example, sampled regions have expanded from 12 regions in 1999 to the current 32 regions. chloramphenicol and nitrofurans were added to the sampling plan of 2003. in addition, in view of the increasing positive results in imported products, from 2003 onwards, residue sampling are applied to imported products, mainly in major entry borders/ports in the provinces of guangdong, liaoning, shanghai, shandong, tianjin and shenzhen.

【图3:1999年至2003年残留监控抽样地区对比图】

    

(二)残留监控的其它有关保障措施

4.2 other related assurance measures for residue monitoring

1、建立残留监控工作专家队伍

4.2.1 setting up expert team for residue monitoring

国家质检总局有一支残留监控的专家队伍,及时收集国外残留限量、方法等信息,定期培训与交流,研讨我国残留监控应对措施。随着残留监控工作的开展和深入,培养了一大批熟悉欧盟、美国、加拿大、日本等国法律法规和精通残留监控管理、督促检查等残留监控方面的管理型专家及精通残留检测技术、掌握最新残留检测动态等技术型专家。

aqsiq has an expert team for residue monitoring who are regularly trained and are responsible for the collection of information on residue limits and methods of analysis, and the studies of measures to be taken for residue monitoring in china. with the development and expansion of residue monitoring work, aqsiq has cultivated a group of residue monitoring experts who are familiar with the laws and regulations of the eu, the unite states, canada, japan and are accomplished in the administration of residue monitoring, supervision and inspection. aqsiq also has a group of technical experts accomplished in residue analytic techniques and well informed of latest analytic development.

2、成立残留监控专家委员会

4.2.2 foundation of national drug residue monitoring committee

农业部邀请其他有关部门专家,成立全国药物残留监控专家委员会。全国药物残留监控专家委员会根据国内药品使用情况及有关环保监控信息与地方残留监控机构的数据及农、兽药销售和使用等方面信息,       评估残留监控计划的效果及效率,进行必要调整,同时负责与相关国际专业组织进行对话,并负责拟订、审议和修改全国残留年度监控计划。

experts from moa and other relevant departments were organized by moa to form national drug residue monitoring committee. the committee is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of residue monitoring plans and making adjustment to the plans if necessary based on the data on domestic drug use, environmental protection, local residue control, and the sale and use of pesticides and veterinary drugs. the committee is also responsible for the dialogues with relevant international organizations, and the draft, examination and revision of annual residue monitoring plans. 

3、汇编有关法规与技术资料

4.2.3 compilation of relevant regulations and technical documents

为了加强残留监控、实验室检测以及有关企业的澳门电玩城的技术支持,国家质检总局2002年11月编印出版了《各国食品中农药兽药残留限量规定》。

with a view to strengthening residue control and laboratory analysis and providing technical assistance to related establishments, pesticide and veterinary drug mrls in foodstuff in different countries was compiled and published in november 2002 by aqsiq.

国家质检总局2003年8月编印了《动物源性食品残留监控法规文件汇编》,下发各直属检验检疫机构与有关企业学习执行。

in july 2003, aqsiq compiled and published collection of regulations and circulars on animal origin foodstuff residue monitoring, which was passed down to each directly-affiliated ciq and related establishment for the purpose of thorough implementation.

.病原微生物控制体系 (implementation of pathogen control program)

(一)病原微生物的控制 

5.1 pathogen control

中国食品卫生规范

(gmp,ssop)

10个出口食品企业的卫生规范和20个国内食品企业的卫生规范

food hygiene regulation in china (gmp, ssop)

ten hygiene regulation for food establishments for export

twenty domestic hygiene regulation

2haccp体系

根据出口食品的卫生注册要求,有六大类出口食品生产加工企业必须实施haccp体系

according to relevant hygiene requirements for the registration of food establishments, in china food establishments involved in the production /processing of the following six categories of products must be operated in accordance with haccp:

(1)含肉或水产品的速冻方便食品

1)  instant frozen food containing meat or aquatic products

(2)肉及肉制品

2)  meat and meat products

(3)速冻蔬菜

3)  instant frozen vegetables

(4)果蔬汁

4)  fruit/vegetable juice

(5)罐头类

5)  canned products

(6)水产品类(活品、冰鲜、晾晒、腌制品除外)

6)  aquatic products (excluding live, fresh and frozen, air-dried, soused products)

(二)病原微生物的检测 

detection of pathogen

1、微生物实验室:按照iso/iec17025建立质量管理体系并经中国实验室认可委员会认证

1.  pathogen testing laboratories: built and operated in line with iso/iec17025; accredited by china laboratory accreditation committee

2、质量控制:实验室定期进行实验室间的能力验证实验并积极参加实验室认可委员会以及其他国际组织(natal, apecal, csl)的能力验证实验

2.  quality control: inter-laboratory proficiency tests are regularly held. laboratories are also involved in active participation in proficiency tests organized by laboratory accreditation committee and international institutions like natal, apecal, csl, etc.

3、检测方法:国际、地区或国家标准方法如:fda/bam 8th、aoac、iso、nmkl、gb方法、sn 方法

3.  testing methods: a variety of international, regional or national standard methods like fda/bam 8th, aoac, iso, nmkl, gb, sn, ect

4、微生物检测项目:细菌计数、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌、致病性大肠杆菌(o157:h7) 、单核增生性李斯特氏菌、弯曲杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、志贺氏菌等

4.  testing items: total bacterial count, o157, salmonellae, o157:h7, listeria monocytogenes, genus campylobacter, staphylococcus aureus, sh.dysenterae ect.

ⅵ. 实验室体系(laboratory quality assurance system)

(一)实验室机构设置

6.1 laboratory construction

国家质检总局共设有8个残留检测基准实验室和31个批准实验室,在动物疫病检测方面设有22个国家级重点实验室、43个区域性中心实验室、6个常规实验室;

in china there are altogether 8 reference laboratories for residue detection and 31 approved laboratories under aqsiq, and 22 national key laboratories, 43 regional central laboratories, 6 routine laboratories are involved in animal disease detection.

农业部共设有2个残留检测基准实验室和32个批准实验室。

there are 2 reference laboratories for residue detection and 32 approved laboratories under moa.

1、基准实验室

6.1.1 reference laboratories

负责指导批准实验室的检测工作,协调分析方法的使用,通过组织培训、比对试验,并在必要的情况下通过对试验结果的分析指导有关实验室纠正偏差;协助主管当局制定和实施残留物质监控计划;定期组织实验室间的比对试验;培训检测实验室分析人员;收集国内外有关残留监控的信息,提供承担项目的国内外年度综述;必要时提供确证检验。

responsibilities of reference laboratories: setting up and coordinating residue analysis methods and standards; assisting the competent authorities in establishing and carrying out residue monitoring programs; participating in international comparative tests and performance tests; organizing regular comparative tests and performance tests; collecting and transferring information on international residue monitoring; offering domestic or international training programs for analytical staff to improve their analytical skills.

2、批准实验室

6.1.2 approved laboratories

承担监控计划中指定的检测任务,出具检验结果;参加有关的技术培训、水平测试和比对试验;向基准实验室提出改进分析方法的建议。

responsibilities of approved laboratories: presenting assigned testing results; strictly carrying out designated standards, methods or detection limits for residue testing; participating in comparative tests organized by reference laboratories; proposing to reference laboratories on improving testing methods.

(二)实验室质量管理(management of laboratory quality

所有实验室均按iso/iec-17025-1997的标准编制了质量体系文件,并获得实验室认可委员会的认可;在其作为基准实验室所负责的残留物质检测方面,有经过残留物质分析方法培训的合格人员,熟悉国际标准;拥有本实验室负责的残留物质分析项目所必需的设备和材料,具有完善的行政组织机构,具有足够的数据处理能力,能迅速地将统计资料和其它信息报告主管部门,并通报其它实验室,有最新的带证标准物质及其相关信息

all laboratories have been accredited by laboratory accreditation committee and have adequate quality control documentation in accordance with iso/iec-17025-1997.

 the laboratories are finely staffed with employees who have been trained on residue analysis and are familiar with international standards and practices. the laboratories are also equipped with adequate facilities and documentation to complete assigned analysis projects. the laboratories have good administrative organizations, own latest crms and related information, and possess sufficient data processing abilities, are able to rapidly submit statistical data and other information to the competent authorities and at the same time, notifying other laboratories.

(三)实验室检测方法

6.2 laboratory testing methods

1、常规分析方法

6.2.1 routine methods of analysis)

实验室根据检验检疫行政执法和国家残留监控计划的要求使用可用于筛选和确证目的的方法。laboratories use testing methods in accordance with the laws of inspection and quarantine and the requirements of the national residue monitoring program. routine methods of analysis must be verified in the laboratory and can be used for the purpose of screening and confirmation.

1)筛选方法:用于筛选目的的方法。这些方法用于测定一种或一类待测物,灵敏度能满足残留检测的要求。这些方法的样品处理能力高,用于大量样品中潜在的阳性样品的筛选,筛选方法必须避免假阴性结果。

(1) screening methods: used for the screening of one kind or one class of compounds; the sensitivity can meet the requirement of residue detection. the methods must be suitable for samples of large numbers for potential positive results; specifically designed to avoid false negative results.

2)确证方法:用于确证目的的方法。提供全部或补充的明确确证信息,灵敏度能满足残留检测的要求,确证方法的目的在于避免假阳性结果。

(2) confirmatory methods: used for confirmation, which provides full or complementary information for positive results, specifically designed to avoid false positive results. the sensitivity can satisfy the requirements for residue detection.

2、结果解析

6.2.2 interpretation of results

(1)阳性结果:对于限量规定为不得检出的物质,如果样品中待测物被明确确证,则分析结果为“阳性”。对于建立了最高残留限量的物质,如果试验样品(使用任何校正因子以后)中待测物含量超过最高残留限量,则分析结果为阳性。

(1) positive results: if the presence of a substance that must not be found in the sample is confirmed, the result is regarded as "positive". for substance with an established maximum residue limit, the result of the analysis is considered as ‘positive’ in case the determined content of the identified compound in the sample is higher than the mrls (in any calibration).

(2)阴性结果:对于限量规定为不得检出的物质,经确证样品中不存在待测物。已建立最高残留限量的残留物,样品中待测物测定含量低于最高残留限量,则分析结果为阴性。

(2) negative results: if a substance that must not be detected in the sample has proved to be out of existence, the result is regarded as "negative". for substances with established mrls, the result is regarded as ‘negative’ in case the content of the compound in the sample is lower than the mrls.

3、分析方法选择

6.2.3 choosing of methods of analysis 

(1)中国国家标准或中国行业标准;

relevant chinese national standards (gb) or chinese industrial standards (sn)

(2)公定的标准方法,如国际标准化组织(iso)发布的方法;

recognized standard methods, for instance, iso methods

(3)经权威的管理部门或机构认可的标准操作指南(sop);

standard operational practices (sop) authorized by competent authorities or institutions.

4、质量控制

6.2.4 quality control

(1)分析方法必须经过认可或周密的验证。

(1) analytical methods must be approved or validated thoroughly before put into use;

(2)程序作出明确的规定,经考核核准的人员才能进行分析、测试、分析结果计算和记录、校核等工作。

(2) it has been stipulated that only those who have been examined and qualified can handle sample analysis, calculation, recording and checking of results;

(3)使用质量控制样品。包括经用有证标准物质(crm)或其他国际上公认的标准物质校准的实验室参考物质。每一次测试应同时检测质量控制样品

(3) use control samples, including certified reference materials (crm), or other laboratory reference materials calibrated by the standard substances recognized internationally. samples analyzed each time should be paralleled with quality control samples

(4)用添加样品(添加有待测物或内标物)检查回收率、响应线性和制作校正曲线

(4) recovery, linearity and calibration curve should be checked by spiked samples (with target component or internal standard).

(5)主要仪器设备,应能满足检测方法的要求,并要经常进行校准和维护。

(5) main testing facilities should meet the requirements of analytical methods, and be verified and maintained regularly.

(6)结果计算必须详细说明,其结果必须符合统计分析的质量要求。

(6) data calculation should be presented in detail. the results must meet statistical quality control requirements.

5、参加实验室比对与协同试验

participating in comparative tests and performance tests

尽管国际上组织开展的兽药残留检测水平测试的次数很少,但ciq的许多实验室近年来还是积极参加了国际水平测试和协同实验:35个ciq实验室通过兽药残留水平测试得到了日本厚生劳动省的认可;浙江、上海等9个实验室参加了英国tpa的茶叶农药残留水平测试,得到了欧盟茶叶委员会的认可;辽宁、上海和浙江参加了aplac的食品检验水平测试;秦皇岛、大连、商检研究所等参加了aoac分析方法协同实验(如克球酚、菊酯类等)。同时,国家实验室认可委员会经常组织全国实验室进行水平测试、盲样测试和比对试验等,实验室与实验室之间也进行结果的比对。

although there are few international tests on residue testing performance, quite a lot of ciq laboratories participated in international comparative tests and performance tests in recent years: 35 laboratories have been accredited by japanese ministry of welfare and labor; 9 laboratories from zhejiang and shanghai took part in tea residue detection performance tests organized by tpa and have been accredited by european tea committee; laboratories from liaoning, zhejiang and shanghai participated in performance tests organized by aplac; commodity inspection research institutes in qinhuangdao and dalian participated in aoac testing method co-experiment (on items of clopitol, pyrethroids, etc.) in the meantime, state laboratory accreditation committee frequently organizes nationwide laboratory performance tests, blind sample tests and comparative tests.

ⅶ. 风险预警与快速反应体系(risk alarm and rapid response)

(一)预警及快速反应的对象和范围

7.1 object and scope of risk alert & rapid response mechanism

存在或可能存在风险及存在潜在危害的具有化学、物理、生物性污染,这些污染包括病原微生物、病虫害、农兽残、重金属残留、毒素等,以及不符合标签规定的进出口动物源性食品等。

chemical, physical or biological contaminants that have or may have or have potential hazardous effect on human health, including pathogens, pests, pesticide and drug residues, heavy metal residues, toxins, and animal-derived food products non-compliant with labeling requirements, etc.

(二)风险预警管理的组织机构

7.2 contracture of organization and management of risk alert

(1)国家质检总局统一管理全国进出口动物源性食品检验检疫风险预警及快速反应工作,进出口食品安全局具体组织实施。

1)    aqsiq plays a leading role in the management of risk alert and quick responding system for imported and exported food products of animal origin, with import and export food safety bureau taking care of the actual implementation.

(2)进出口动物源性食品检验检疫风险预警及快速反应工作办公室(风险预警办公室)设在标准法规中心,负责风险预警及快速反应的日常工作。

2)    risk alert and quick responding office (which is under standards, law and regulation center, known also as risk alert office) deals with daily affairs associated with risk alert.

(3)国家质检总局设在各地的直属出入境检验检疫机构(直属局)指定相应的部门负责所辖地区的进出口动物源性食品风险预警及快速反应工作。

3)    provincial/local ciq designates corresponding bodies to deal with risk alert and quick responding affairs.

(三)风险预警措施

7.3 risk alert measures

(1)向各地出入境检验检疫机构发布风险警示通报,对特定出入境货物、物品有针对性地加强检验检疫和监测等,并迅速采取有效的措施控制风险

1)    to issue alert notifications to provincial/local ciq, to strengthen inspection, supervision on specific entry-exit commodities/consignments, and to take effective measures to bring risks, if any, under control.

(2)向国内外生产厂商、相关部门发布风险警示通告,提醒或通知其采取适当的措施,主动消除或降低进出口动物源性食品的风险。

2)    to release alert notifications reminding domestic and foreign producers and relevant authorities to take proper measures for the purpose of removing or reducing risks.

(3)向消费者发布风险警示通告,提醒消费者注意某种动物源性食品的风险,确保安全。

3)    to publicize alert notifications enhancing consumers' awareness of the risk a certain animal-originated food product may impose.

(四)快速反应措施

7.4 rapid response

1、进出口检验检疫快速反应措施

7.4.1 rapid response of entry-exit inspection and quarantine

(1)出入境口岸检验检疫发现不合格产品依法有条件地限制有风险的动物源性食品出入境或使用;对严重者采取禁止其出入境、销毁或退回。

(2)日常检验检疫监测发现不合格产品对有风险的动物源性食品采取严密监控、增加检验比例、增设检验项目、增加检验检疫批次、扣留观察、责令召回等措施。

(3)国外有关风险信息通过不合格产品信息的报道,加强对有风险的动物源性食品的国内外生产、加工或存放单位的卫生注册及监督检查,对不符合条件的,依法取消其检验检疫卫生注册登记资格或进出口动物源性食品标签审核证书等。

1)    border controls: if non-compliant products are found by ciq, responding restrictive measures will be taken in line with relevant laws and regulations; if found to be seriously non-compliant, products shall be rejected or destroyed, and the entry/exit of them shall not be allowed.

2)    routine controls: if non-compliant products are found in routine analysis, the products shall be closely supervised, and follow-up measures like the increase of sampling percentage, testing items and consignments, detaining, mandatory recalls, shall be taken.

3)    when there are reports on hazardous products in a third country, corresponding measures, such as strengthening supervision on the establishments that produce, process or store products that may pose risks; if non-compliance is confirmed, the registration number and/or labeling certificate of animal products for import/export of the establishment(s) will be annulled.

2、紧急控制措施

7.4.2 emergent control measures

(1)对风险不明确而且可能存在重大风险的出入境动物源性食品,采取扣留检验检疫、限制进出口的临时紧急措施,并积极收集信息进行风险评估。

(2)对已经明确存在a级风险的出入境动物源性食品,采取紧急措施,禁止其出入境、销毁或退回;必要时,提请国务院封锁有关口岸。

1)    imported/exported animal products that may produce severe hazardous effect will be detained for further analysis, the movement of which shall be restricted until risk assessment is made based on collected information.

2)    imported/exported animal products that are confirmed to have class a hazardous effect shall be rejected at border, to be destroyed or recalled; and if necessary, the state council shall be suggested to take measures to close border post(s) involved.

3、召回管理程序

7.4.3 recall management procedure

出口主管部门在确定出口食品存在问题后,及时向经营者发出召回通知书,并发出暂停出口公告,生产企业在接到主管部门发出的召回通知书之日起3日内,停止出口所涉及的出口食品,经营者接到主管部门关于出口食品指令召回通知书之日起5日内,实施产品召回行动计划,对每一批完成召回的出口食品,经营者应保存符合本程序要求的召回记录单,在召回完成时,向主管部门递交符合要求的召回结果报告,主管部门或其指定的机构应对召回行动进行核实和检查,确保召回行动按计划完成。

when exported food products are confirmed to be unsafe or unsuitable for human consumption, the competent authorities shall issue recall notifications to the producers/exporters involved, and coupled with that, export suspension announcements will also be issued. producers involved, upon the arrival of recall notifications, shall suspend the export of the affected food products within 3 days; exporters involved, upon the arrival of recall notifications, shall start to recall the affected products within 5 days. recall records shall be kept in line with recall procedure requirements; recall reports shall be submitted to the competent authorities upon the completion of recall procedures. the competent authorities or their designated agencies are responsible for the review and verification of recalls made to ensure its accordance with recall plans.

、进出境检验检疫管理

management of entry-exit inspection and quarantine

(一)风险分析7.1  risk analysis

进口的肉类产品应来自无动物疫病流行的国家或地区。提供出口国详细的兽医卫生状况及动物疫病发生情况,完成兽医答卷。

imported meat products must come from non-epizootic disease countries or regions. the competent authority of the countries or regions that intended to export meat products to china should provide information about animal health statue and the outbreak of epizootic disease , complete an animal disease questionnaire.

(二)签订双边协议

8.2 signing bilateral agreement

肉类出口国政府应与国家质量监督检验检疫总局签订有关输入肉类的双边议定书。

the competent authority of exporting country should sign bilateral agreements with general administration of quality supervision, inspection and quarantine of p.r.c (aqsiq ). on importing of meat products.

(三)境外生产厂家考核与注册登记

8.3 on-site review and registration of foreign establishments

出口企业应向中华人民共和国认证认可监督管理局申请注册,进口的肉类产品应来自中华人民共和国认证认可监督管理局批准注册的加工厂,加工厂和肉类生产应在出口国政府官方兽医的监督监管下。未经认证认可监督管理局注册登记的国外加工企业生产的肉类产品不得向中国出口。

the export-oriented facilities of foreign countries and regions should apply for registration  to certification and accreditation administration of the people’s republic of china (cnca ), the imported meat products must come from the facilities that approved by cnca, and the production of meat products should be put under the supervision of the official inspector

(四)检验检疫 (8.4 inspection and quarantine )

1、检疫审批 8.4.1 import permit

检疫审批制度是指根据动植物检疫法第五条、第十条及其实施条例的第九条、第十条以及国家有关规定,对进境动物及其动物产品(含过境动物及产品)、部分植物及其产品,必须事先办理检疫审批手续,获得《中华人民共和国进境动植物检疫许可证》(以下称检疫许可证)。审批范围详见《进境动植物检疫审批名录》(国家质检总局2002年第2号公告)

base on the statement of article 5 and 10 in law of the people's republic of china on the entry and exit animal and plant quarantine, and statement of article 9and 10 in the regulation for implementation of law of the people's republic of china on entry and exit animal and plant quarantine , the import permit system requires whoever imports animal quarantine objects or transports transit quarantine objects shall submit an application, go through the formalities for approval of quarantine and get the import permit of entry animal and plant quarantine of people’s republic of china in advance. some detailed information is in “the list of import permit of animal and plant quarantine” (announcement no.2, 2002,aqsiq)

2检疫报检quarantine declaration

输入、输出检验检疫物或过境运输检验检疫物,必须提前向有关进出境检验检疫机构申报检疫,同时提供必要的报检资料,如报检单、检疫许可证、产地检疫证书、贸易合同等。

quarantine declaration system requires whoever imports and exports inspection and quarantine objects or transports transit inspection and quarantine objects shall apply to relevant entry-exit inspection and quarantine authorities in advance on strength of the necessary documents such as declaration form, the import permit, the health certificate of origin and trade contracts etc.

3、现场检验检疫 on-spots inspection and quarantine

(1)进出境的检验检疫物到达口岸时,进出境检验检疫机构依法登车、登船、登机对检疫物实施检疫,包括查验证单、查验证货相符、防疫消毒等。

(2)根据需要,采取样品进行实验室检验检疫。

on arrival at a port of entry-exit inspection and quarantine objects, the inspection and quarantine authority shall embark on a ship, a vehicle or an airplane to perform quarantine by the law, including documents check and identity check, and preventive disinfections.

if necessary, the samples will be taken at random for laboratory tests

4、实验室检验检疫 laboratory tests

进出口动物源性食品的实验室检验项目、方法和判定标准根据应检疫病名录、双边检疫议定书、贸易合同或协议中订明的要求进行。检验项目包括有害生物(病原微生物,体内、外寄生虫,昆虫、有害物质、杂草等)、残留(农药与兽药残留,重金属,生物与化学毒素,有毒物质,超标的微量元素)等。

the items, methods and standards of laboratory tests for products of animal origin for export & import are specified in the list of diseases, bilateral quarantine protocol, trade contracts or agreements. the inspection items include harmful existences( pathogenic microbes, celozoic and ectozoic parasites, insects, weeds and other harmful substance) ;residues(pesticides and veterinary drug residues, heavy metal, chemical toxins, toxic substances, trace elements) etc.

5、检验检疫监督supervision on inspection and quarantine

检验检疫监督是指对进出口动物源性食品的生产、加工、存放过程实施监督管理。

inspection and quarantine supervision requires that the whole process of the production, processing and storage of products of animal origin for export & import shall be under the supervision and surveillance.

6、检验检疫放行和检验检疫处理

inspection & quarantine release and inspection & quarantine treatments

(1)检验检疫放行是指对经检验检疫合格的检验检疫物给予的放行处理

(2)检疫处理是指对经检验检疫不合格的检验检疫物采取的措施,包括退回、销毁(扑杀)和除害(如消毒、熏蒸)措施。

inspection release means the measure shall be taken for the inspection and quarantine objects which have passed the quarantine inspection

quarantine treatments means all kinds of measures shall be taken for the inspection and quarantine objects fails to quarantine inspection, including rejection, destruction (killing) and inactivation of harmful organism (by disinfections or fumigation).